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On 16 March 2014, a referendum was held whose results showed that a majority of Crimeans voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject.The legitimacy of the referendum's results has been questioned by several nations and independent news organizations.The name Simferopol is in Greek, Συμφερόπολις (Simferopolis), and literally means "the city of usefulness." The tradition to give Greek names to places in newly acquired southern territories was carried out by Empress Catherine the Great as part of her Greek Plan.In 1802, Simferopol became the administrative centre of the Taurida Governorate.On 13 November 1920, the Red Army captured the city and on 18 October 1921, Simferopol became the capital of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.During World War II, Simferopol was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 November 1941 to 13 April 1944.In the 20th century, Simferopol was once again affected by wars and conflicts in the region.At the end of the Russian Civil War, the headquarters of General Pyotr Wrangel, leader of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, were located there.
The average temperature in January is 0.2 °C (32.4 °F) and 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Simferopol became the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within newly independent Ukraine.
Today, the city has a population of 340,600 (2006) most of whom are ethnic Russians, with the rest being Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities.
The average rainfall is 514 millimetres (20.2 in) per year, and there is a total of 2,471 hours of sunshine per year.
As the capital of the Republic, Simferopol houses its political structure including the Parliament and the Council of Ministers.